Mafia Clans

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Die Brüderschaft steht über alles in der Welt der Mafia. Dass die Mafia weiterhin gegenwärtig ist, beweisen die Ereignisse in Neapel, bei denen sich rivalisierende Clans der Camorra, die u. a. den Drogenhandel in. kooperiert mit den südamerikanischen Kartellen und arbeitet oft in enger Verbindung mit amerikanischen Mafia-Clans oder der amerikanischen Cosa Nostra. Im Südwesten Italiens, in der Region Kampanien, versucht der Mafia-Clan in diesen Tagen vor allem die ärmeren Bevölkerungsschichten. Italienischen Organisierten Kriminalität in Deutschland stehen in erster Linie die vier klassischen Formen von kriminellen Gruppierungen nach "Art der Mafia",​.

Mafia Clans

Ihren Ursprung hat die Mafia vermutlich auf Sizilien, wo sie "Cosa Nostra" Die Camorra ist ein Zusammenschluss lokaler Bündnisse beziehungsweise Clans. Italienischen Organisierten Kriminalität in Deutschland stehen in erster Linie die vier klassischen Formen von kriminellen Gruppierungen nach "Art der Mafia",​. Dass die Mafia weiterhin gegenwärtig ist, beweisen die Ereignisse in Neapel, bei denen sich rivalisierende Clans der Camorra, die u. a. den Drogenhandel in.

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Sie gilt als die stärkste der italienischen Mafia-Gruppierungen in Deutschland, wobei hier der internationale Rauschgifthandel von herausragender Bedeutung ist. Die Corona-Krise hat diese Wirtschaftszweige Beste Spielothek in OttenhГ¶fen im Schwarzwald finden getroffen", so Natale. Kommunen, Bürgerinitiativen und Nichtregierungsorganisationen können diese dann in Cafes, Restaurants, Kultur- oder Gesundheitszentren umwandeln. Die cupola bilden die Anführer der jeweiligen Clans. Gerade in diesen Tagen fällt das hier im ärmlichen Süden Italiens vielen Menschen schwer. Diese Informationen sollten nicht hinter einer Paywall verborgen sein. Neuer Abschnitt.

First, an important member of the Giardini cosca was shot down by a machine gun. When it became clear he was not dead yet, two women of the Ciaculli clan, Antonina 51 and Rosalia 19 the widow and daughter of one of the bosses killed the year before, went down into the street and finished the victim off with kitchen knives.

In return, the brother and sister of the victim shot the women; Antonina was wounded and her daughter killed. Their attacker was then shot and killed by Antonina's year-old son.

In total, eleven members of the two clans died and several others were wounded in the feud, before other Palermo Mafia bosses started to put pressure on Piddu the lieutenant to end the bloody feud, which drew too much attention.

Moreover, Piddu was expected to take care for both factions of the feuding clans, after the killing of the bosses of the rival faction.

His status depended on how he would manage the situation. Piddu the lieutenant asked for mediation from Antonio Cottone , the boss of the Mafia family of Villabate , a town close to Ciaculli and Croceverde.

Cottone, who had been deported from the US, was an influential mafioso both in Palermo as in his native village Villabate, and still had good connections in the US, in particular with Joe Profaci , who came from the same village.

At the time, Profaci was in Sicily and it seems he played an important role in the peace negotiations. They became co-owners of a citrus fruit export business and partners in a bus company.

Historians are sceptical about the blood feud theory of the struggle. At stake was the control of the citrus plantations, the management of the citrus derivatives business and transport, as well as control over the wholesale markets in eastern Palermo.

Six of the victims in the war did not bear the Greco name. The blood feud legend was probably spread around to hide the real motives behind the struggle.

Giuseppe Greco and Pietro Greco, of the Ciaculli faction, both had a son that became important mafiosi:. Giuseppe Greco, also known as "Piddu u tinenti", the boss of Croceverde Giardini faction, had two sons that rose to prominence in Cosa Nostra:.

Cardinal Ernesto Ruffini accepted an invitation of Piddu Greco to bless the new church of Croceverde-Giardini and a dinner afterwards. The Grecos were protagonist in the violent conflict about the Palermo fruit and vegetable wholesale market that was moved from the Zisa area to Acquasanta near the port in January , disturbing the delicate power balances within Cosa Nostra.

The Acquasanta Mafia clan tried to muscle in on the protection racket that traditionally belonged the "Mafia of the Gardens" — such as the Grecos and Cottone — because it now fell under their territory.

Some villages just outside Palermo, like Bagheria and Villabate , flared up with the same kind of violence for the control of irrigation, transport, and wholesale markets.

On August 22, , Nino Cottone was killed as well. In the end the Acquasanta had to split the profits of the wholesale market racket with the Greco Mafia clan of Ciaculli , who traditionally controlled fruit and vegetable supply to Palermo wholesale market.

Although descendants of the old, established rural Mafia, the cousins Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco and Salvatore "The Engineer" Greco quickly learned to profit from the post-war economic boom and became involved in cigarette smuggling and heroin trafficking.

Heroin trafficking between these two groups might have been discussed, but there certainly was not a general agreement on the heroin trade between the Sicilian Mafia and the American Cosa Nostra, as is often suggested.

At one of the meetings American Mafia boss Joe Bonanno suggested the Sicilians to form a Sicilian Mafia Commission to avoid violent disputes, following the example of the American Mafia that had formed their Commission in the s.

Somewhere in the Sicilian Mafia composed its first Mafia Commission. The Commission, however, was not able to prevent the outbreak of a violent Mafia War in The cousins Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco and Salvatore "The Engineer" Greco of the Ciaculli family were also protagonists in the First Mafia War between rival clans in Palermo in the early s for the control of the profitable opportunities brought about by rapid urban growth and the illicit heroin trade to North America.

The conflict was sparked by a quarrel over an underweight shipment of heroin and the murder of Calcedonio Di Pisa — an ally of the Grecos — in December The clash between the Grecos and the La Barberas involved an old and a new Mafia.

According to Antimafia judge Cesare Terranova the Grecos "represented the traditional Mafia, the Mafia in trappings of respectability … and they are linked by a dense network of friendships, interests, and protections with the leading Mafiosi of the Palermo area.

They occupy a position of preeminence in the sector of cigarette and drug smugglers. The La Barberas, in contrast, come out of obscurity and their power consists especially in their enterprising ways and their following — a determined band of professional killers.

On June 30, a car bomb exploded near Grecos' house in Ciaculli , killing seven police and military officers sent to defuse it after an anonymous phone call.

The outrage over the Ciaculli Massacre changed the Mafia war into a war against the Mafia. It prompted the first concerted anti-mafia efforts by the state in post-war Italy.

The Sicilian Mafia Commission was dissolved and of those mafiosi who had escaped arrest many went abroad. Even the old Piddu Greco was arrested in October , and send into internal banishment from Sicily in May The repression caused by the Ciaculli Massacre disarranged the Sicilian heroin trade to the United States.

Mafiosi were banned, arrested and incarcerated. Salvatore "The Engineer" and "Ciaschiteddu" Greco were sentenced in absentia to respectively 10 and 4 years in prison at the Trial of the in that was initiated as the result of the First Mafia War , but as they had been on the run since , they did not serve a day.

In they were both given the maximum period of five years of internal banishment at the remote island of Asinara , but they were nowhere to be found.

In the s the Mafia recuperated. This time it was the Grecos from Croceverde who rose to prominence. The brothers Michele Greco and Salvatore Greco operated low profile and were able to enter into relationships with businessmen, politicians, magistrates and law enforcement officials through their membership of Masonic lodges.

In this operation were seized vehicles, 21 hectares of land, 6 companies and 21 bank accounts. On June 3, , the Italian police dismantled the monopoly of the drug market led by the D'Alessandro clan.

According to the police the clan had the total control of the cocaine market in the Sorrento Peninsula , where they would be also selling drugs to wealthy businessmen.

The D'Alessandro clan also used a network of brokers to which they accessed new supply channels, having contacts even with the Bellocco and Pesce 'ndrine, historical 'Ndrangheta groups from Rosarno in Calabria.

In June , 5 Camorra affiliates were arrested in the Province of Naples, that operated between the cities of Nola and Saviano. According to the investigations, they were involved in public contracts in Saviano, such as in the redevelopment of the sewage system and in the management of the waste collection service.

The group was also active in the drug market, supplying the local drug dealers. After months of investigations and joint activities of the Interpol , on June 3, , the Italian government finally obtained the extradition of Salvatore Vittorio from Dominican Republic to Italy.

Vittorio was considered the money launderer of the Contini clan in Santo Domingo. According to the Italian authorities, he is accused of mafia-type criminal association and money laundering.

Among the seized assets were two villas, two garages, two warehouse-depots, six commercial premises, three plots of land, a school building and a nursery.

On June 9, , a Senator of centre-right opposition Forza Italia party, Luigi Cesaro, was placed under investigation, after a police investigation that led to the arrest of 59 affiliates of Camorra clans based in the comune of Sant'Antimo , including three brothers of the politician.

The Cesaro family is a well known family in Sant'Antimo, having vast businesses especially in the field of private health and affiliated with the National Health Service.

Despite its origins, it presently has secondary ramifications in other Italian regions, like Lombardy , Piedmont , Lazio and Emilia-Romagna in connection with the centres of national economic power.

The Camorra has been present in France since the early s. The locations with the biggest presence of the organization in the country are the French Riviera , Paris and Lyon.

Their biggest objective in the country has always been to create contacts for drug trafficking but also money laundering.

Paolo Di Lauro funnelled the proceeds into real estate, buying dozens of flats in Naples, owning shops in France and the Netherlands, as well as businesses importing fur, fake fur and lingerie.

In , Antonio Lo Russo, member of the powerful Lo Russo clan and considered the new regent of the clan, and his cousin Carlo Lo Russo were arrested by agents of National Gendarmerie Section de recherches and by Carabinieri when quietly in a bar in Nice.

The clan is accused of extortion , drug trafficking and murder. According to the then Minister of the Interior of France, Bernard Cazeneuve , the arrest of Lo Russo was a hard blow for the organized crime in the country.

The La Torre clan was known to launder money in the country with the help of the former chancellor of Salerno , Cesare Salomone.

In June the operation Spaghetti Connection dismantled an international drug network involving the Camorra and the 'Ndrangheta in Abidjan and Tabou.

The police seized 1. This operation was the third of its kind in Ivory Coast in less than three years, but the largest by its magnitude.

Six Italians, one French and three Ivorians were arrested. For 20 years, West Africa has become, if not a hub, a very important rebound zone for traffickers.

This operation proves that if they thought that Ivory Coast and West Africa could be a sanctuary, they were wrong. The drug trafficking in the country is said to contribute to the financing of the various jihadist groups in the Sahel , Africa.

Giuseppe Polverino, the leader of the Polverino clan before his arrest, was considered the ' hashish king', due to his monopoly on the importation of hashish from Morocco to Italy via Spain supplying not only all the Camorra clans, but also the 'Ndrangheta , the Sicilian Mafia and the Sacra Corona Unita.

According to one of the pentitos of the clan, Domenico Verde, the hashish was cultivated in the region of Ketama , and arrived by mules in the beginning, but later was modernized and accessible on trucks and cars.

On 18 March an Italian, suspected of being one of the leaders of the Mazzarella clan , was arrested in the Ourika region, near Marrakech.

He had a pursuant to a red notice issued against him by Interpol in January On 29 May Raffaele Vallefuoco, an important member of the Polverino clan , was arrested in the Rabat region.

Vallefuoco is considered one of the biggest drug traffickers in Italy and was included on the list of the 50 most wanted fugitives.

According to Francesco Forgione , the former president of the Antimafia Commission , the Camorra is very active in gambling houses and money laundering in the Netherlands.

The Camorra also uses the country to counterfeit clothes, and the clans most involved in this illegal activity are the Licciardi clan , the Di Lauro clan and the Sarno clan.

Augusto La Torre , the former leader of the La Torre clan is suspected of having hid hundreds of millions of euros in Dutch banks, as the La Torre clan was very active in the country in the s transporting large cocaine shipments from South America to Naples via the Netherlands.

In , Raffaele Imperiale bought a coffee shop called Rockland Coffee in Amsterdam, where he sold soft drugs and was involved in large scale cocaine trafficking with the Dutch drug trader Rick van de Bunt.

Imperiale worked in Amsterdam until In , two stolen Van Gogh paintings from the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam in were recovered in a villa near Naples , connected to Raffaele Imperiale, accused of being one of the Camorra's prolific drug barons.

Imperiale was sentenced to 18 years in absentia for drug offenses. Marfella is believed to have played a coordinating role in the drug trade from the Netherlands to Italy.

In December , the Dutch police arrested in The Hague , Dario Pasutto, a businessman suspected of smuggling thousands of kilos of cocaine and tens of thousands of kilos of hashish from the Netherlands to Italy.

According to the Dutch press, the suspect is a well-known flamboyant entrepreneur, and for many years a Camorra affiliate. As Peru is one of the largest cocaine producers in the world, the Camorra's interest in the country is entirely related to the drug trafficking.

In the s, Umberto Ammaturo , a Camorra affiliate, established a virtual monopoly of cocaine trafficking to Italy from Peru , where he benefited from the protection and collusion of important personalities.

One of the leaders of the Mazzarella clan , Salvatore Zazo, was allegedly involved in a large scheme of international cocaine trafficking from Peru to Europe, with the intention to acquire total control of the Port of Callao ; one of his contacts was Gerald Oropeza, one of the biggest drug traffickers in Peru.

Camorra clans in Romania deal in money laundering. The Sacco-Bocchetti clan is a subgroup of the Licciardi clan and Manzo took care of the accounting of the clan, and often supervised the supply of drugs from abroad.

In , Nicola Inquieto, an Italian businessman with strong ties to Michele Zagaria one of the leaders of the powerful Casalesi clan , was arrested in Romania.

His businesses in the country are valued at several million euros. According to the Romanian media, since the arrest of his brother Nicola, Vincenzo lived permanently in the country, returning rarely to Italy.

And was reportedly taking charge of the vast business the Casalesi clan, particularly the Zagaria's faction, held in Romania.

According to the journalist Roberto Saviano , Spain after Italy is the country most entwined with the Camorra. It is where the Camorra clans established its massive businesses revolving around drug trafficking and money laundering in real estate.

Camorra has been in Spain since the s. The most powerful clan acting in the country is the Polverino clan due to the number of people they have installed and because of the potential of their structure.

The presence of the organization in the Costa del Sol is so strong that Camorra bosses refer to it as Costa Nostra' "Our Coast" , according to Italian journalist Roberto Saviano , a specialist on the Naples criminal underworld.

Another clan with influence in Spain is the Scissionisti di Secondigliano led by Raffaele Amato nicknamed Lo Spagnolo the Spaniard , because before creating his own clan, he controlled the drug trafficking operation from Galicia to Naples for the Di Lauro clan.

The drug trafficker Pasquale Brunese was arrested in Valencia in , after seven years hiding from the Italian police. In Spain, Brunese owned a restaurant and was living with a false name.

In February , the Spanish police arrested 14 members of the notorious Marranella clan. According to the Guardia Civil , the clan is one of the most important and violent criminal organizations dedicated to the international drug trade and is based in the Costa del Sol.

Alfredo Barasso, linked to the bloodthirsty Casalesi boss Giuseppe Setola , was arrested in Valencia and extradited to Italy.

Barasso was a "bridge" between Italy and Spain, working for the Casalesi clan in the drugs management in the Barcelona area.

After his decision to become a pentito, and afraid of retaliation by the Camorra, Barasso would be willing to return to Spain, where he has wife and children, and pay his penalty there, as provided by the bilateral agreements between the two countries.

According to a documentary of the Spanish television, Barcelona is the nerve center of the organization outside Italy, exposing the endless business of the Camorra in Catalonia , from the massive drug trafficking to the laundering of huge amounts of money in restaurants, clubs and hotels of the region.

The documentary also features an interview with Maurizio Prestieri, former member of the Di Lauro clan arrested in Marbella in and now pentito, who said that Spain is the favorite place for the camorristi.

Also in , relatives of top members belonging to the Polverino clan claim three million euros to the Spanish State of compensation after their relatives were acquitted by the National Court of the crime of money laundering for which they were arrested in and tried in Among the assets seized were six yachts, two Ferrari Testarossa , one Lamborghini , one Harley-Davidson , bank accounts and real estate.

The plaintiffs are all relatives of the late Giuseppe Felaco, who was allegedly an important member of the Polverino clan based in the Canary Islands , they assure that this Spanish police operation against their family has been a great economic damage, apart from a moral damage.

On 20 November , the Italian police with the cooperation of the Spanish police, arrested two members of the Polverino clan , who belonged to a major transnational organizational structure, created by the Polverinos, based in Valencia and Naples, that between and imported hashish from Morocco via Spain to arrive in the Campania region.

The Camorra has had a presence in Switzerland for more than 50 years, undertaking money laundering but also arms trafficking and drug trafficking.

The Casalesi clan is present throughout the country, and according to the investigations into the clan, it has numerous Swiss bank accounts.

In , Ciro Mazzarella , the late boss of the Mazzarella clan , decided to move to Switzerland, after losing a war between Camorra clans in Naples.

From his logistics base in Lugano , he created an enviable economic empire with cigarette smuggling that arrived from Montenegro.

According to reports about the Camorra, the United Kingdom is an area of interest to launder money, using finance companies and business activities.

The Casalesi clan , through an entrepreneur and alleged financial intermediary, had invested 12 million euros using various companies based in Great Britain.

Antonio Righi, called "Tonino il biondo", was considered by the investigators as a money laudererer on behalf of the Contini and Mazzarella clans in London.

Among the British companies that figured in his scheme, was one registered at a luxurious terraced house not far from Oxford Street in London's West End.

The trial built against Righi clearly showed that he understood exactly how modern global finance works. The Italian police confiscated million euros belonging to Righi.

Between the mids and early s, Scotland has had its brush with the Camorra, when Antonio La Torre of Aberdeen was the local "Boss".

The La Torre Clan's empire was worth hundreds of millions of euros. Antonio had several legitimate businesses in Aberdeen, whereas his brother Augusto had several illegal businesses there.

Augusto would eventually become a pentito in January The Camorra operated in the United States , primarily in New York City, between the midth century and early 20th century.

They rivaled the now defunct Morello crime family for power in New York City. Eventually, they melded with early Italian-American Mafia groups.

In the s, many Camorra members and associates fled the internecine gang warfare and Italian justice, which was directed at suppressing the groups, and immigrated to the United States.

According to the FBI , it is believed that nearly Camorra affiliates operate in the country. Although they did not appear to recreate their clan structure in the United States, Camorra members have established a presence in Los Angeles , New York City, and Springfield, Massachusetts.

In , the Obama administration imposed sanctions on the Camorra as one of four key transnational organized crime groups, along with the Brothers' Circle from Russia, the Yamaguchi-gumi Yakuza from Japan, and Los Zetas from Mexico.

According to the media, there have always been alliances between the Camorra and the 'Ndrangheta members. On 26 August , Domenico Tripodo , a powerful 'Ndrangheta boss of the time, was stabbed to death in prison on the request of the De Stefano 'ndrina , and with the help of Camorra boss Raffaele Cutolo , the boss of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata NCO who worked with the De Stefano's in drug trafficking.

The operation consisted in transporting the drugs from Venezuela and Colombia, through several European ports including the port of Amsterdam.

At the port of Livorno , kilos of cocaine were seized. On 11 May , a criminal alliance between the sinti criminal organization Casamonica clan , members of the Camorra, and affiliates from the 'Ndrangheta 's of Polistena , Taurianova and Melicucco was dismantled by the police.

On 21 March , 19 arrests were made in Rome of alleged members belonging to the Licciardi clan of the Camorra and members of the Filippone 'ndrina and Gallico 'ndrina accused of drug trafficking.

In , investigations of the Italian police reveals links between the Contini clan and the Crupi brothers, members of the powerful Commisso 'ndrina.

Both organizations are reportedly cooperating in the drug trafficking business. Several Camorra clans have lasting relationships with the Cosa Nostra.

Prominent elements of the Mafia such as Salvatore Riina , Leoluca Bagarella , Luciano Leggio and Bernardo Provenzano found themselves in contact with Camorra clans such as the Nuvoletta clan , members of the Camorra such as Michele Zaza and Antonio Bardellino , and with other groups that formed the Nuova Famiglia confederation in the s.

In the past, the Russo clan had links with the Mafia, particularly in the s and s, at the time of the Corleonesi Mafia era.

In , the Direzione Investigativa Antimafia of Catania dismantled a scheme between the Camorra's Mallardo clan and Casalesi clan and members of the powerful Catania's mafia family, led by Vincenzo Enrico Augusto Ercolano, son of Giuseppe Ercolano deceased, but once an important member of the Catania's mafia and Grazia Santapaola, the sister of the historical boss Benedetto Santapaola.

According to the pentito Domenico Verde, the Polverino clan has a good relationship with the Cosa Nostra families from Palermo , in particular thanks to the drug trafficking business.

This organization operated in various cities of Apulia during the s. According to the pentito Antonio Accurso, the Di Lauro clan has several links to the Sacra Corona Unita in question with regards to drug trafficking.

The vast network of drug traffickers, extended from Morocco , passing through Spain , Switzerland and the Netherlands to finally arrive in Trentino and in Bolzano.

Arriving in Italy, the drugs were sold in parks, historic centers and near schools by mainly Tunisian and Moroccan pushers.

Nineteen people were arrested, four are still being wanted in Italy, Spain and in the Netherlands and seventy-three are under investigation.

The links between the South American drug cartels and Camorra clans dates back to at least the s, having stabilized numerous privileged drug channels from South America to Europe over the years.

According to investigations, the Camorra member Tommaso Iacomino allegedly negotiated with the head of Peruvian and Colombian drug cartels over the cocaine trade.

Giuseppe Gallo called 'o pazz the crazy one , boss of the Limelli-Vangone clan, is said to having contacts with Colombian drug traffickers able to reach agreements for the purchase of large quantities of cocaine, supplying various clans in the Naples area.

According to the reports, the drug was found in 19 bags inside a container that arrived from Colombia. The container was headed to Naples but was intercepted at the port of Genoa.

On 18 December , the Italian police arrested 12 people, including members of an international drug cartel dedicated to the drug trafficking between Colombia and Italy.

According to the investigations, the cocaine brought from Colombia was pure and of high quality, and when it arrived in Italy, it was sold at a "retail" price of euros per gram, all the scheme was managed by Camorra members.

According to the Direzione Investigativa Antimafia, the Albanian mafia has alliances with the Mazzarella clan and with the Scissionisti di Secondigliano, both from Naples and with the Serino clan, from Salerno.

Saviano spoke of the Albanian mafia as a "no longer foreign mafia" to Italy and stressed that the Albanians and Italians have a "brotherly" relationship with each other.

Saviano notes that the Camorra feels great affinity with the Albanian crime families because both organizations are based on family ties. According to the expert on terrorist organizations and mafia-type organized crime Antonio De Bonis, there is a close relationship between the Triads and the Camorra, and the port of Naples is the most important landing point of the trades managed by the Chinese groups in cooperation with the Camorra.

Among the illegal activities in which the two criminal organizations work together are the human trafficking and illegal immigration aimed at the sexual and labor exploitation of the Chinese compatriots into Italy, the synthetics drug trafficking and the laundering of illicit money through the purchase of real estate.

In , investigators discovered a scheme between the Camorra and the Chinese gangs. They exported industrial waste from Italy to China that guaranteed million-dollar revenues for both organizations.

The industrial waste left Prato in Italy and arrived in Hong Kong. Among the Camorra clans involved in this alliance were the Casalesi clan , the Fabbrocino clan and the Ascione clan.

In the beginning, the Nigerians were not tolerated by the Camorra but in recent times both organizations are making alliances.

The relations between the Camorra and Nigerian mafia concern mainly drug trafficking and prostitution. In particular, Camorra members allowed the Nigeria gangs to organize the trafficking of women in the territory in exchange for a share on the earnings.

The Nigerian mafia produces synthetic drugs independently and sells them with the consent of the Camorra. This alliance, however, can change from one moment to another, as the Nigerians have asked to be treated on par with other Italian mafias, for the fact that they are growing both as a military and as an economic force.

According to numerous articles, the Camorra would be in alliances with the Islamic State. The allegations reached the media after the Italian police seized 14 tonnes of amphetamines produced in Syria by the Islamic State, on July 1, Camorra clans would bring the drugs to Italy and take a huge cut for helping to distribute them.

Yet according to the investigations, the drugs production provides the terrorist group with vital revenue for its militant activities.

These bills would then be transported to the Russian Mafia for distribution in 29 post- Eastern Bloc countries and former Soviet republics. In the s, the Ukrainian mafia cooperated with Camorra clans in the cigarette smuggling business.

The Ukrainians would smuggle the cigarettes from Ukraine and Eastern Europe into Italy, where with the help of the Camorra it supplies the Neapolitan market.

In March , a massive international arms trafficking ring was dismantled by the authorities of Italy and Austria and coordinated by Eurojust.

According to the investigations, the alliance between the Camorra and the Austrians lasted for seven years, until the police dismantled the scheme.

I dont know any cases, which are so big and where so many weapons have been sold. The new owners are also not "juvenile guarantors" but several members of the Camorra, one of the most dangerous criminal organizations in Europe.

The weapons are believed to have come originally from Eastern Europe taken to Carinthia in Austria with the objective to arrive in Terzigno near Naples.

DEA documents sent to the Dutch police exposed what would be a super drug cartel headed by Raffaele Imperiale Camorra's drugs and arms dealer , Ridouan Taghi former Dutch most wanted criminal, now in jail , Daniel Kinahan Irish drug trafficker and Edin G.

Bosnian drug trafficker. The meetings took place in , however, it only reached the Dutch media in October The DEA regards this as one of the world's fifty largest drug cartels, with a virtually monopoly of the Peruvian cocaine and would control around a third of the cocaine trade in Europe.

Yet, according to the DEA documents, the destination for all the drugs shipments would be the Dutch ports. With most of the old Camorra clans decapitated, and their bosses either dead or arrested, the organization is experiencing a rise in youth criminal gangs trying to take their places.

This phenomenon is called Paranza , Camorra terminology for a criminal group led by youngsters or "small fish". In , 19 year-old Emanuele Sibillo, considered one of the first young and leading bosses of this new generation, was shot dead by a rival baby gang.

We can clearly see the baby gangs are criminals, or people who want to have criminal careers. But there's a vacuum, because the traditional families have lost their leaders.

In the centre of Naples the bosses are either in prison or they've become state witnesses, so there's this kind of space for younger kids to appear.

They're 17 or 18 with criminal ambition, and they've got a sense of identity of what they want to do. According to Misso, the real power of the organization is now in the hands of the Licciardi clan , Mallardo clan , Moccia clan and Contini clan.

On 2 September , Ciro Mazzarella , one of the last historical godfathers of the Camorra, and head of the Mazzarella clan , died in his villa in the affluent neighbourhood of Posillipo , Naples at the age of According to reports, in , after the arrest of Marco Di Lauro , leader of the Di Lauro clan and fourth son of Paolo Di Lauro , the Contini clan became the most powerful clan of the Camorra, thanks to no internal split, and not having affiliates that became collaborators of justice.

The clan is present in the drugs trafficking, extortion, betting and counterfeiting, also investing hundreds of millions of euros in various countries of Europe.

On 23 April , the powerful boss Mario Fabbrocino , leader of the Fabbrocino clan, died in the hospital of the Parma prison, where he was serving a life sentence for ordering the murder of Roberto Cutolo, Raffaele Cutolo 's only son, in Since 26 June , Maria Licciardi was considered the most wanted fugitive belonging to the Camorra, after she managed to escape the huge police operation against her clan.

Now, Licciardi is considered a free woman, despite her known role as the head of the Secondigliano Alliance. She has always been very feared and respected for her impetuous nature.

According to the media, she is the figure that has well represented the image of the women inside the Camorra, the female symbol of leadership when men are detained or dead.

According to the reports of the DIA about the Camorra, the Mazzarella clan , despite the bloody war against the Rinaldi clan , still one of most powerful organizations in Campania , dominating the territory in various neighbourhoods, and having numerous groups under their influence, as the Ferraiuolo clan.

After a time inactive, the De Luca Bossa clan is believed to be gaining power again in the eastern area of Naples, specifically in Ponticelli , thanks to the merger with emergent groups as the Minichini and Schisa.

On 11 September , Antonino Di Lorenzo, known as o' lignammone, was killed in an ambush near his house in Casola di Napoli.

Yet, according to the investigations, the killing happened thanks to the 'permission' of the clans from Castellammare di Stabia, who have always supervised the immensely lucrative marijuana trade from the region.

On 30 October , the release of two affiliates belonging to the Beneduce-Longobardi clan made the media headlines after they were received with a huge party in the neighborhood of Monterusciello, Pozzuoli.

Giovanni Illiano, 48, and Silvio De Luca, 41, were released after 8 years and 10 years in prison, respectively. More than a hundred of relatives and friends were waiting for them for a party with champagne, flashing nightclub lights, a large fireworks display and a concert of Anthony, a well known neomelodic singer of the area.

According to the investigations, he would have suffered a heart attack. According to numerous reports, the most powerful clans of the Camorra are the Secondigliano Alliance and the Mazzarella clan.

Both clans remain with full dominance of their territories while most of city experiences the growth of small and violent gangs headed by young guys between 17 and 25 years old.

In May , Patrizio Bosti , one of the most powerful Camorra bosses who is still alive and one of the leaders of the Secondigliano Alliance, was released from prison.

Bosti also claimed inhumane treatment while in prison, and will be compensated by the Italian state. The Camorra boss, that was serving a prison sentence since his arrest in Spain in , should have been released from prison in , however he was charged for three years and the halfway between early release and the time calculated as credit for the "inhuman treatment".

The new prison order concerns a recalculation of the sentence by the Emilia-Romagna judiciary, as he was serving his sentece in the region, on the basis of documents provided by the Naples Public Prosecutor.

According to the authorities, Bosti has to serve another six years in jail. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film originally titled Camorra , see Gang War in Naples.

For the Italian film, see Camorra film. Criminal organization in Italy. Main articles: Naples waste management issue , Triangle of death Italy , and Ecomafia.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Italy portal. Archived from the original on 24 May Retrieved 26 December Paris: Odile Jacob.

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Antimo per l'omicidio di 'o negus". Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 18 October Dia Napoli sequestra beni per 1,5 mln di euro al clan Gallo".

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First, an important member of the Giardini cosca was shot down by a machine gun. When it became clear he was not dead yet, two women of the Ciaculli clan, Antonina 51 and Rosalia 19 the widow and daughter of one of the bosses killed the year before, went down into the street and finished the victim off with kitchen knives.

In return, the brother and sister of the victim shot the women; Antonina was wounded and her daughter killed. Their attacker was then shot and killed by Antonina's year-old son.

In total, eleven members of the two clans died and several others were wounded in the feud, before other Palermo Mafia bosses started to put pressure on Piddu the lieutenant to end the bloody feud, which drew too much attention.

Moreover, Piddu was expected to take care for both factions of the feuding clans, after the killing of the bosses of the rival faction.

His status depended on how he would manage the situation. Piddu the lieutenant asked for mediation from Antonio Cottone , the boss of the Mafia family of Villabate , a town close to Ciaculli and Croceverde.

Cottone, who had been deported from the US, was an influential mafioso both in Palermo as in his native village Villabate, and still had good connections in the US, in particular with Joe Profaci , who came from the same village.

At the time, Profaci was in Sicily and it seems he played an important role in the peace negotiations. They became co-owners of a citrus fruit export business and partners in a bus company.

Historians are sceptical about the blood feud theory of the struggle. At stake was the control of the citrus plantations, the management of the citrus derivatives business and transport, as well as control over the wholesale markets in eastern Palermo.

Six of the victims in the war did not bear the Greco name. The blood feud legend was probably spread around to hide the real motives behind the struggle.

Giuseppe Greco and Pietro Greco, of the Ciaculli faction, both had a son that became important mafiosi:. Giuseppe Greco, also known as "Piddu u tinenti", the boss of Croceverde Giardini faction, had two sons that rose to prominence in Cosa Nostra:.

Cardinal Ernesto Ruffini accepted an invitation of Piddu Greco to bless the new church of Croceverde-Giardini and a dinner afterwards.

The Grecos were protagonist in the violent conflict about the Palermo fruit and vegetable wholesale market that was moved from the Zisa area to Acquasanta near the port in January , disturbing the delicate power balances within Cosa Nostra.

The Acquasanta Mafia clan tried to muscle in on the protection racket that traditionally belonged the "Mafia of the Gardens" — such as the Grecos and Cottone — because it now fell under their territory.

Some villages just outside Palermo, like Bagheria and Villabate , flared up with the same kind of violence for the control of irrigation, transport, and wholesale markets.

On August 22, , Nino Cottone was killed as well. In the end the Acquasanta had to split the profits of the wholesale market racket with the Greco Mafia clan of Ciaculli , who traditionally controlled fruit and vegetable supply to Palermo wholesale market.

Although descendants of the old, established rural Mafia, the cousins Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco and Salvatore "The Engineer" Greco quickly learned to profit from the post-war economic boom and became involved in cigarette smuggling and heroin trafficking.

Heroin trafficking between these two groups might have been discussed, but there certainly was not a general agreement on the heroin trade between the Sicilian Mafia and the American Cosa Nostra, as is often suggested.

At one of the meetings American Mafia boss Joe Bonanno suggested the Sicilians to form a Sicilian Mafia Commission to avoid violent disputes, following the example of the American Mafia that had formed their Commission in the s.

Somewhere in the Sicilian Mafia composed its first Mafia Commission. The Commission, however, was not able to prevent the outbreak of a violent Mafia War in The cousins Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco and Salvatore "The Engineer" Greco of the Ciaculli family were also protagonists in the First Mafia War between rival clans in Palermo in the early s for the control of the profitable opportunities brought about by rapid urban growth and the illicit heroin trade to North America.

The conflict was sparked by a quarrel over an underweight shipment of heroin and the murder of Calcedonio Di Pisa — an ally of the Grecos — in December The clash between the Grecos and the La Barberas involved an old and a new Mafia.

According to Antimafia judge Cesare Terranova the Grecos "represented the traditional Mafia, the Mafia in trappings of respectability … and they are linked by a dense network of friendships, interests, and protections with the leading Mafiosi of the Palermo area.

They occupy a position of preeminence in the sector of cigarette and drug smugglers. The La Barberas, in contrast, come out of obscurity and their power consists especially in their enterprising ways and their following — a determined band of professional killers.

On June 30, a car bomb exploded near Grecos' house in Ciaculli , killing seven police and military officers sent to defuse it after an anonymous phone call.

The outrage over the Ciaculli Massacre changed the Mafia war into a war against the Mafia. It prompted the first concerted anti-mafia efforts by the state in post-war Italy.

The Sicilian Mafia Commission was dissolved and of those mafiosi who had escaped arrest many went abroad. Even the old Piddu Greco was arrested in October , and send into internal banishment from Sicily in May The repression caused by the Ciaculli Massacre disarranged the Sicilian heroin trade to the United States.

Mafiosi were banned, arrested and incarcerated. Salvatore "The Engineer" and "Ciaschiteddu" Greco were sentenced in absentia to respectively 10 and 4 years in prison at the Trial of the in that was initiated as the result of the First Mafia War , but as they had been on the run since , they did not serve a day.

In they were both given the maximum period of five years of internal banishment at the remote island of Asinara , but they were nowhere to be found.

In the s the Mafia recuperated. This time it was the Grecos from Croceverde who rose to prominence. The brothers Michele Greco and Salvatore Greco operated low profile and were able to enter into relationships with businessmen, politicians, magistrates and law enforcement officials through their membership of Masonic lodges.

The evolution into more organised formations indicated a qualitative change: the Camorra and camorristi were no longer local gangs living off theft and extortion; they had a fixed structure and some kind of hierarchy.

Another qualitative leap was the agreement between the liberal opposition and the Camorra, following the defeat of the revolution. They turned to the Camorra and paid them because the camorristi were the leaders of the city's poor.

The new police chief, Liborio Romano , appealed to the head of the Camorra, Salvatore De Crescenzo, to maintain order and appointed him as head of the municipal guard.

Following Italian unification in , the government made attempts to suppress the Camorra. The Saredo Inquiry — , established to investigate corruption and bad governance in Naples, identified a system of political patronage run by what the report called the "high Camorra":.

The original low camorra held sway over the poor plebs in an age of abjection and servitude. Then there arose a high camorra comprising the most cunning and audacious members of the middle class.

They fed off trade and public works contracts, political meetings and government bureaucracy. This high camorra strikes deals and does business with the low camorra, swapping promises for favours and favours for promises.

The high camorra thinks of the state bureaucracy as being like a field it has to harvest and exploit.

Its tools are cunning, nerve and violence. Its strength comes from the streets. And it is rightly considered to be more dangerous, because it has re-established the worst form of despotism by founding a regime based on bullying.

The high camorra has replaced free will with impositions, it has nullified individuality and liberty, and it has defrauded the law and public trust.

The inquiry introduced the terminology of "high Camorra", as having a bourgeois character, and distinct from the plebeian Camorra proper.

The two groups were in close contact through the figure of the intermediary faccendiere. From the rich industrialist who wants a clear road into politics or administration to the small shopowner who wants to ask for a reduction of taxes; from the businessman trying to win a contract to a worker looking for a job in a factory; from a professional who wants more clients or greater recognition to somebody looking for an office job; from somebody from the provinces who has come to Naples to buy some goods to somebody who wants to emigrate to America; they all find somebody stepping into their path, and nearly all made use of them.

Scholars dispute whether the "high Camorra" was an integral part of the Camorra proper. In the early 20th century, given the poverty of Naples and the region, many camorristi emigrated to the United States.

The Camorra received another blow with the Cuocolo trial — The trial was ostensibly to prosecute those charged with the murder on 6 June of the Camorrista Gennaro Cuocolo and his wife, who were suspected of being police spies.

The main investigator, Carabinieri Captain Carlo Fabbroni, transformed the trial into one against the Camorra as a whole, intending to use it to strike the final blow to the Camorra.

After 17 months, the often tumultuous proceedings ended with a guilty verdict on 8 July against defendants who included 27 leading Camorra bosses.

They were sentenced to a total of years' imprisonment. Enrico Alfano , the main defendant and nominal head of the Camorra, was sentenced to 30 years.

The Camorra was never a centralised organisation, but instead a loose confederation of different, independent clans, groups or families.

Each group was bound by kinship ties and controlled economic activities that took place in its particular geographic territory.

Each took care of its own business, protected its territory, and sometimes tried to expand at another group's expense. There was some minimal coordination to avoid mutual interference.

The families competed to maintain a system of checks and balances among equal powers. One of the Camorra's strategies to gain social prestige was and remains political patronage.

The family clans became the preferred go-betweens of local politicians and public officials because of their grip on the community.

In turn, the family bosses used their political sway to assist and protect their clients against the local authorities. Through a mixture of brute force, political status, and social leadership, the Camorra clans gained ground as middlemen between the local community and bureaucrats and politicians at national level.

They granted privileges and protection, and intervened in favour of their clients, in return for their silence and connivance against local authorities and the police.

With their political connections, the heads of the major Neapolitan families became power brokers in local and national political contexts, providing Neapolitan politicians with broad electoral support, and in return receiving benefits for their constituency.

Compared to the Sicilian Mafia 's pyramidal structure, the Camorra has more of a 'horizontal' structure. This, however, makes the Camorra more resilient when top leaders are arrested or killed, as new clans and organisations emerge from the remnants of old ones.

Clan leader Pasquale Galasso stated in court, "Campania can get worse because you could cut into a Camorra group, but another ten could emerge from it.

According to a report published in by Confesercenti, the second-largest Italian trade organisation, the Camorra control the milk and fish industries, the coffee trade, and over 2, bakeries in Naples.

In , Italian law enforcement estimated that there were about a dozen Camorra clans. By , the estimate had risen to 26, and in the following year to In and , the Di Lauro clan and the so-called Scissionisti di Secondigliano fought a bloody feud which came to be known in the Italian press as the Scampia feud.

The result was over street killings. At the end of October a new series of murders took place in Naples between 20 competing clans, costing 12 lives in 10 days.

The Interior Minister, Giuliano Amato , decided to send more than 1, extra police and carabinieri to Naples to fight crime and protect tourists.

In , the businessman Domenico Noviello from Caserta testified against a Camorra extortionist and subsequently received police protection.

In he refused further protection and was killed one week later. In recent years, various Camorra clans have been allegedly using alliances with Nigerian drug gangs and the Albanian mafia.

Augusto La Torre , the former La Torre clan boss who became a pentito , is married to an Albanian woman; the first foreign pentito, a Tunisian, admitted to being involved with the feared Casalesi clan of Casal di Principe.

The first town in which the Camorra sanctioned stewardship by a foreign clan was Castel Volturno , which was given to the Rapaces, clans from Lagos and Benin City in Nigeria.

This allowed them to traffic cocaine and women in sexual slavery before sending them across Europe. Since the s, the Camorra has taken over the handling of waste disposal in the region of Campania.

By December , all regional landfills had reached capacity. With the complicity of industrial companies, heavy metals, industrial waste , and chemicals and household waste are frequently mixed together, then dumped near roads and burned to avoid detection, leading to severe soil and air pollution.

According to Giacomo D'Alisa et al. A Camorra member, Nunzio Perella was arrested in , and began collaborating with authorities; he had stated "the rubbish is gold.

The triangle of death and the waste management crisis is primarily a result of government failure to control illegal waste dumping.

The government had attempted to mandate recycling and waste management programs, but were unable, causing the expansion of opportunities for illegal activities, which caused further barriers to solve the waste crisis.

In November , a demonstration by tens of thousands of people was held in Naples in protest against the pollution caused by the Camorra's control of refuse disposal.

The Camorra has proven to be an extremely difficult organisation to fight within Italy. At —12 trial, Fabroni gave testimony on how complicated it was to successfully prosecute the Camorra: "The Camorrist has no political ideals.

He exploits the elections and the elected for gain. The leaders distribute bands throughout the town, and they have recoursed to violence to obtain the vote of the electors for the candidates whom they have determined to support.

Those who refuse to vote as instructed are beaten, slashed with knives, or kidnapped. All this is done with assurance of impunity, as the Camorrists will have the protection of successful politicians, who realize that they cannot be chosen to office without paying toll to the Camorra.

Unlike the Sicilian Mafia, which has a clear hierarchy and a division of interests, the Camorra's activities are much less centralised.

This makes the organisation much more difficult to combat through crude repression. It offers a sense of community and provides the youth with jobs.

Members are guided in the pursuit of criminal activities, including cigarette smuggling , drug trafficking, and theft. The government has made an effort to combat the Camorra's criminal activities in Campania.

The solution ultimately lies in Italy's ability to offer values, education and work opportunities to the next generation.

However, the government has been hard pressed to find funds for promoting long-term reforms that are needed to improve the local economic outlook and create jobs.

Despite the overwhelming magnitude of the problem, law enforcement officials continue their pursuit. The Italian police are coordinating their efforts with Europol and Interpol to conduct special operations against the Camorra.

The Carabinieri and the Financial Police Guardia di Finanza are also fighting criminal activities related to tax evasion, border controls, and money laundering.

In , police took a leading Camorra figure into custody. Francesco Schiavone was caught hiding in a secret apartment near Naples behind a sliding wall of granite.

Michele Zagaria , a senior member of the Casalesi clan, was arrested in after eluding police for 16 years. He was found in a secret bunker in the town Casapesenna, near Naples.

Around the same time 29 suspected Camorra members were also arrested in Rome. The arrests in the Campania region demonstrate that the police are not allowing the Camorra to operate without intervention.

However, progress remains slow, and these minor victories have done little to loosen the Camorra's grip on Naples and the surrounding regions. In , Italian police arrested three members of the Camorra crime syndicate on 30 September According to Gianfrancesco Siazzu, commander of the Carabinieri police, the three were captured in small villas on the coast of Naples.

All three had been on Italy's top most wanted list. Police seized assets valued at over million euros and also weapons, including two AK assault rifles that may have been used in the shooting of six Africans on 18 September Police found pistols, Carabinieri uniforms and other outfits that were used to disguise members of the operation.

During the same week, a separate operation netted 26 additional suspects in Caserta. All were believed to belong to the powerful Camorra crime syndicate that operates in and around Naples.

The suspects were charged with extortion and weapons possession. In some cases, the charges also included murder and robbery. Giuseppina Nappa, the year-old wife of a jailed crime boss, was among those arrested.

She is believed to be the Camorra's local paymaster. In the name of this company, he purchased real estate in Campania and Sardinia.

In November , Italian police announced the arrest of Antonio Orlando, suspected of being a major figure in the Camorra. In February , Ciro Rinaldi, boss of the Rinaldi clan , was arrested in a house in the region of San Pietro a Patierno , he is accused of the double murder of Raffaele Cepparulo, member of a small gang linked to the Mazzarella clan , and Ciro Colonna, an innocent victim.

Rinaldi is also considered responsible for the murder of Vincenzo De Bernardo, also linked to the Mazzarellas.

In March , Marco Di Lauro , the second most wanted man in Italy, was arrested after spending 14 years on the run.

He is the fourth son of ex-Camorra boss Paolo Di Lauro. In , an informant said that he was responsible for at least four murders. In June , the Italian police arrested more than members of the Secondigliano Alliance, the alliance created by the Licciardi , Contini and Mallardo clans, in an anti-Camorra operation.

Among those who were arrested were the wives of the bosses of the Bosti , Mallardo, Licciardi and Contini clans, but also their lieutenants, children, grandchildren and entrepreneurs who worked for the alliance.

On 10 August , an operation of the police arrested six important members of the Rinaldi clan, particularly members of the Reale faction.

They are accused of drug trafficking, extortion and illegal possession of weapons. The organization, once considered one of the most prominent, suffered hard blows in , with the arrests of most of its leaders and important figures.

On 21 August , Giuseppe Chirico, included in the list of the most dangerous fugitives in Italy, was arrested in the Ciampino airport , where he landed after a brief holiday abroad.

Chirico is considered a prominent member of the Scarpa, linked to the powerful Gallo-Cavalieri clan from Torre Annunziata , dedicated in particular to international drug trafficking.

He was wanted since January and was using a fake identity at the time of his arrest. On 24 September , the Italian police arrested Salvatore Ferro, step brother of Gaetano Beneduce, head of the historical Beneduce-Longobardi clan, based in Pozzuoli.

Ferro, according to investigations, led the Ferro faction of the clan since the death of his brother Rosario Ferro, known as 'Capatosta, in Now he will serve two years and five months in prison.

Between the end of the s and the s, the Verde clan fought with the Puca and Ranucci clans, a clash to which numerous murders were attributed.

The Gallo clan has control over illegal activities such as extortion, drug trafficking and money laundering in the areas of Boscotrecase , Boscoreale and Torre Annunziata.

De Martino was considered to be in charge of the financial management of the organization. On 23 October , the Italian police dismantled the Montescuro clan, arresting 23 important members of the organisation.

According to the investigations, due to his mediation skills, he was able to put the Missos , the Mazzarellas and the Continis at the same table when the war between their organisations was at its peak in the early s.

Montescuro also had a good relationship with Marco Mariano, boss of the Mariano clan in the s. Despite his advanced age, the Court of Naples authorized his arrest and transfer to prison; however, after less than two weeks, he was transferred from jail to house arrest for health reasons.

In November , Raffaele Romano, a prominent affiliate of the De Luca Bossa clan , decided to move to the side of the State, becoming a pentito.

On 6 November , the Carabinieri arrested Federico Rapprese, linked to the Rannucci clan and included in the list of the most dangerous fugitives.

Rapprese was wanted since February , accused of the attempted murder of Antonio Marrazzo, brother of the head of the Marazzo clan, happened in December On 8 November , Antonio Abbinante, considered the new boss of Scampia and the current head of the Abbinante clan , was arrested by the police.

Abbinante was intercepted in Mugnano di Napoli along with two bodyguards. On 12 November , 20 members of the Cesarano clan were arrested, accused of Camorra association, extortion and drug trafficking.

The organization is particularly active in Ponte Persica and Pompei. In May , the police dismantled a scheme in which the clan had a privileged channel to the Netherlands, obtaining the monopoly on shipments of flowers, bulbs and pottery from the country.

On 11 December , Giuseppe Polverino and Giuseppe Simioli, former leaders of the Polverino clan , were sentenced to life imprisonment.

They were held responsible for the murder of Giuseppe Candela, which happened in July According to the investigations, Candela, who was a member of the clan, was killed because he was managing his business independently and no longer responding to the clan.

In February , four members affiliated to the Rinaldi clan were arrested, among which are also Rita and Francesco Rinaldi, sons of the late boss of the clan, Antonio Rinaldi known as ' O Giallo killed in , as well nephews of Ciro Rinaldi.

Also in February , the Guardia di Finanza seized a company that, according to the Antimafia, belonged to the Cesarano clan , from Castellammare di Stabia , and was headed by Antonio Martone and Giovanni Esposito, both in prison, and brothers-in-law of Luigi Di Martino, boss of the Cesarano clan.

The purpose of this company was to stand between traders and carriers in order to impose the services and tariffs of the clan on them.

On March 17, , the Italian police arrested five members of the Aprea-Cuccaro clan accused of extortion and attempted extortion with aggravating circumstances.

The current actions by members of the Aprea-Cuccaro clan would be an expression of the new criminal alliance formed with the De Luca Bossa clan and the Rinaldi clan in order to control the entire eastern territory of Naples.

In May , a small "army" of drug dealers led by Anna Gallo, a year-old woman, was overthrown by the Italian police in Torre Annunziata.

Anna Gallo, known as "ninnacchera", is the widow of a local Camorra affiliate Ernesto Venditto, killed in an ambush in In the operation were arrested 22 people, including 9 women.

Among the seized goods are 25 bank accounts, 8 companies, 18 commercial premises, 32 houses, 7 garages and 4 lands. In this operation were seized vehicles, 21 hectares of land, 6 companies and 21 bank accounts.

On June 3, , the Italian police dismantled the monopoly of the drug market led by the D'Alessandro clan.

According to the police the clan had the total control of the cocaine market in the Sorrento Peninsula , where they would be also selling drugs to wealthy businessmen.

The D'Alessandro clan also used a network of brokers to which they accessed new supply channels, having contacts even with the Bellocco and Pesce 'ndrine, historical 'Ndrangheta groups from Rosarno in Calabria.

In June , 5 Camorra affiliates were arrested in the Province of Naples, that operated between the cities of Nola and Saviano.

According to the investigations, they were involved in public contracts in Saviano, such as in the redevelopment of the sewage system and in the management of the waste collection service.

The group was also active in the drug market, supplying the local drug dealers. After months of investigations and joint activities of the Interpol , on June 3, , the Italian government finally obtained the extradition of Salvatore Vittorio from Dominican Republic to Italy.

Vittorio was considered the money launderer of the Contini clan in Santo Domingo. According to the Italian authorities, he is accused of mafia-type criminal association and money laundering.

Among the seized assets were two villas, two garages, two warehouse-depots, six commercial premises, three plots of land, a school building and a nursery.

On June 9, , a Senator of centre-right opposition Forza Italia party, Luigi Cesaro, was placed under investigation, after a police investigation that led to the arrest of 59 affiliates of Camorra clans based in the comune of Sant'Antimo , including three brothers of the politician.

The Cesaro family is a well known family in Sant'Antimo, having vast businesses especially in the field of private health and affiliated with the National Health Service.

Despite its origins, it presently has secondary ramifications in other Italian regions, like Lombardy , Piedmont , Lazio and Emilia-Romagna in connection with the centres of national economic power.

The Camorra has been present in France since the early s. The locations with the biggest presence of the organization in the country are the French Riviera , Paris and Lyon.

Their biggest objective in the country has always been to create contacts for drug trafficking but also money laundering. Paolo Di Lauro funnelled the proceeds into real estate, buying dozens of flats in Naples, owning shops in France and the Netherlands, as well as businesses importing fur, fake fur and lingerie.

In , Antonio Lo Russo, member of the powerful Lo Russo clan and considered the new regent of the clan, and his cousin Carlo Lo Russo were arrested by agents of National Gendarmerie Section de recherches and by Carabinieri when quietly in a bar in Nice.

The clan is accused of extortion , drug trafficking and murder. According to the then Minister of the Interior of France, Bernard Cazeneuve , the arrest of Lo Russo was a hard blow for the organized crime in the country.

The La Torre clan was known to launder money in the country with the help of the former chancellor of Salerno , Cesare Salomone.

In June the operation Spaghetti Connection dismantled an international drug network involving the Camorra and the 'Ndrangheta in Abidjan and Tabou.

The police seized 1. This operation was the third of its kind in Ivory Coast in less than three years, but the largest by its magnitude. Six Italians, one French and three Ivorians were arrested.

For 20 years, West Africa has become, if not a hub, a very important rebound zone for traffickers. This operation proves that if they thought that Ivory Coast and West Africa could be a sanctuary, they were wrong.

The drug trafficking in the country is said to contribute to the financing of the various jihadist groups in the Sahel , Africa. Giuseppe Polverino, the leader of the Polverino clan before his arrest, was considered the ' hashish king', due to his monopoly on the importation of hashish from Morocco to Italy via Spain supplying not only all the Camorra clans, but also the 'Ndrangheta , the Sicilian Mafia and the Sacra Corona Unita.

According to one of the pentitos of the clan, Domenico Verde, the hashish was cultivated in the region of Ketama , and arrived by mules in the beginning, but later was modernized and accessible on trucks and cars.

On 18 March an Italian, suspected of being one of the leaders of the Mazzarella clan , was arrested in the Ourika region, near Marrakech.

He had a pursuant to a red notice issued against him by Interpol in January On 29 May Raffaele Vallefuoco, an important member of the Polverino clan , was arrested in the Rabat region.

Vallefuoco is considered one of the biggest drug traffickers in Italy and was included on the list of the 50 most wanted fugitives.

According to Francesco Forgione , the former president of the Antimafia Commission , the Camorra is very active in gambling houses and money laundering in the Netherlands.

The Camorra also uses the country to counterfeit clothes, and the clans most involved in this illegal activity are the Licciardi clan , the Di Lauro clan and the Sarno clan.

Augusto La Torre , the former leader of the La Torre clan is suspected of having hid hundreds of millions of euros in Dutch banks, as the La Torre clan was very active in the country in the s transporting large cocaine shipments from South America to Naples via the Netherlands.

In , Raffaele Imperiale bought a coffee shop called Rockland Coffee in Amsterdam, where he sold soft drugs and was involved in large scale cocaine trafficking with the Dutch drug trader Rick van de Bunt.

Imperiale worked in Amsterdam until In , two stolen Van Gogh paintings from the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam in were recovered in a villa near Naples , connected to Raffaele Imperiale, accused of being one of the Camorra's prolific drug barons.

Imperiale was sentenced to 18 years in absentia for drug offenses. Marfella is believed to have played a coordinating role in the drug trade from the Netherlands to Italy.

In December , the Dutch police arrested in The Hague , Dario Pasutto, a businessman suspected of smuggling thousands of kilos of cocaine and tens of thousands of kilos of hashish from the Netherlands to Italy.

According to the Dutch press, the suspect is a well-known flamboyant entrepreneur, and for many years a Camorra affiliate. As Peru is one of the largest cocaine producers in the world, the Camorra's interest in the country is entirely related to the drug trafficking.

In the s, Umberto Ammaturo , a Camorra affiliate, established a virtual monopoly of cocaine trafficking to Italy from Peru , where he benefited from the protection and collusion of important personalities.

One of the leaders of the Mazzarella clan , Salvatore Zazo, was allegedly involved in a large scheme of international cocaine trafficking from Peru to Europe, with the intention to acquire total control of the Port of Callao ; one of his contacts was Gerald Oropeza, one of the biggest drug traffickers in Peru.

Camorra clans in Romania deal in money laundering. The Sacco-Bocchetti clan is a subgroup of the Licciardi clan and Manzo took care of the accounting of the clan, and often supervised the supply of drugs from abroad.

In , Nicola Inquieto, an Italian businessman with strong ties to Michele Zagaria one of the leaders of the powerful Casalesi clan , was arrested in Romania.

His businesses in the country are valued at several million euros. According to the Romanian media, since the arrest of his brother Nicola, Vincenzo lived permanently in the country, returning rarely to Italy.

And was reportedly taking charge of the vast business the Casalesi clan, particularly the Zagaria's faction, held in Romania.

According to the journalist Roberto Saviano , Spain after Italy is the country most entwined with the Camorra. It is where the Camorra clans established its massive businesses revolving around drug trafficking and money laundering in real estate.

Camorra has been in Spain since the s. The most powerful clan acting in the country is the Polverino clan due to the number of people they have installed and because of the potential of their structure.

The presence of the organization in the Costa del Sol is so strong that Camorra bosses refer to it as Costa Nostra' "Our Coast" , according to Italian journalist Roberto Saviano , a specialist on the Naples criminal underworld.

Another clan with influence in Spain is the Scissionisti di Secondigliano led by Raffaele Amato nicknamed Lo Spagnolo the Spaniard , because before creating his own clan, he controlled the drug trafficking operation from Galicia to Naples for the Di Lauro clan.

The drug trafficker Pasquale Brunese was arrested in Valencia in , after seven years hiding from the Italian police. In Spain, Brunese owned a restaurant and was living with a false name.

In February , the Spanish police arrested 14 members of the notorious Marranella clan. According to the Guardia Civil , the clan is one of the most important and violent criminal organizations dedicated to the international drug trade and is based in the Costa del Sol.

Alfredo Barasso, linked to the bloodthirsty Casalesi boss Giuseppe Setola , was arrested in Valencia and extradited to Italy.

Barasso was a "bridge" between Italy and Spain, working for the Casalesi clan in the drugs management in the Barcelona area. After his decision to become a pentito, and afraid of retaliation by the Camorra, Barasso would be willing to return to Spain, where he has wife and children, and pay his penalty there, as provided by the bilateral agreements between the two countries.

According to a documentary of the Spanish television, Barcelona is the nerve center of the organization outside Italy, exposing the endless business of the Camorra in Catalonia , from the massive drug trafficking to the laundering of huge amounts of money in restaurants, clubs and hotels of the region.

The documentary also features an interview with Maurizio Prestieri, former member of the Di Lauro clan arrested in Marbella in and now pentito, who said that Spain is the favorite place for the camorristi.

Also in , relatives of top members belonging to the Polverino clan claim three million euros to the Spanish State of compensation after their relatives were acquitted by the National Court of the crime of money laundering for which they were arrested in and tried in Among the assets seized were six yachts, two Ferrari Testarossa , one Lamborghini , one Harley-Davidson , bank accounts and real estate.

The plaintiffs are all relatives of the late Giuseppe Felaco, who was allegedly an important member of the Polverino clan based in the Canary Islands , they assure that this Spanish police operation against their family has been a great economic damage, apart from a moral damage.

On 20 November , the Italian police with the cooperation of the Spanish police, arrested two members of the Polverino clan , who belonged to a major transnational organizational structure, created by the Polverinos, based in Valencia and Naples, that between and imported hashish from Morocco via Spain to arrive in the Campania region.

The Camorra has had a presence in Switzerland for more than 50 years, undertaking money laundering but also arms trafficking and drug trafficking.

The Casalesi clan is present throughout the country, and according to the investigations into the clan, it has numerous Swiss bank accounts.

In , Ciro Mazzarella , the late boss of the Mazzarella clan , decided to move to Switzerland, after losing a war between Camorra clans in Naples.

From his logistics base in Lugano , he created an enviable economic empire with cigarette smuggling that arrived from Montenegro.

According to reports about the Camorra, the United Kingdom is an area of interest to launder money, using finance companies and business activities.

The Casalesi clan , through an entrepreneur and alleged financial intermediary, had invested 12 million euros using various companies based in Great Britain.

Antonio Righi, called "Tonino il biondo", was considered by the investigators as a money laudererer on behalf of the Contini and Mazzarella clans in London.

Among the British companies that figured in his scheme, was one registered at a luxurious terraced house not far from Oxford Street in London's West End.

The trial built against Righi clearly showed that he understood exactly how modern global finance works. The Italian police confiscated million euros belonging to Righi.

Between the mids and early s, Scotland has had its brush with the Camorra, when Antonio La Torre of Aberdeen was the local "Boss". The La Torre Clan's empire was worth hundreds of millions of euros.

Antonio had several legitimate businesses in Aberdeen, whereas his brother Augusto had several illegal businesses there.

Augusto would eventually become a pentito in January The Camorra operated in the United States , primarily in New York City, between the midth century and early 20th century.

They rivaled the now defunct Morello crime family for power in New York City. Eventually, they melded with early Italian-American Mafia groups.

In the s, many Camorra members and associates fled the internecine gang warfare and Italian justice, which was directed at suppressing the groups, and immigrated to the United States.

According to the FBI , it is believed that nearly Camorra affiliates operate in the country. Although they did not appear to recreate their clan structure in the United States, Camorra members have established a presence in Los Angeles , New York City, and Springfield, Massachusetts.

In , the Obama administration imposed sanctions on the Camorra as one of four key transnational organized crime groups, along with the Brothers' Circle from Russia, the Yamaguchi-gumi Yakuza from Japan, and Los Zetas from Mexico.

According to the media, there have always been alliances between the Camorra and the 'Ndrangheta members. On 26 August , Domenico Tripodo , a powerful 'Ndrangheta boss of the time, was stabbed to death in prison on the request of the De Stefano 'ndrina , and with the help of Camorra boss Raffaele Cutolo , the boss of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata NCO who worked with the De Stefano's in drug trafficking.

The operation consisted in transporting the drugs from Venezuela and Colombia, through several European ports including the port of Amsterdam. At the port of Livorno , kilos of cocaine were seized.

On 11 May , a criminal alliance between the sinti criminal organization Casamonica clan , members of the Camorra, and affiliates from the 'Ndrangheta 's of Polistena , Taurianova and Melicucco was dismantled by the police.

On 21 March , 19 arrests were made in Rome of alleged members belonging to the Licciardi clan of the Camorra and members of the Filippone 'ndrina and Gallico 'ndrina accused of drug trafficking.

In , investigations of the Italian police reveals links between the Contini clan and the Crupi brothers, members of the powerful Commisso 'ndrina.

Both organizations are reportedly cooperating in the drug trafficking business. Several Camorra clans have lasting relationships with the Cosa Nostra.

Prominent elements of the Mafia such as Salvatore Riina , Leoluca Bagarella , Luciano Leggio and Bernardo Provenzano found themselves in contact with Camorra clans such as the Nuvoletta clan , members of the Camorra such as Michele Zaza and Antonio Bardellino , and with other groups that formed the Nuova Famiglia confederation in the s.

In the past, the Russo clan had links with the Mafia, particularly in the s and s, at the time of the Corleonesi Mafia era. In , the Direzione Investigativa Antimafia of Catania dismantled a scheme between the Camorra's Mallardo clan and Casalesi clan and members of the powerful Catania's mafia family, led by Vincenzo Enrico Augusto Ercolano, son of Giuseppe Ercolano deceased, but once an important member of the Catania's mafia and Grazia Santapaola, the sister of the historical boss Benedetto Santapaola.

According to the pentito Domenico Verde, the Polverino clan has a good relationship with the Cosa Nostra families from Palermo , in particular thanks to the drug trafficking business.

This organization operated in various cities of Apulia during the s. According to the pentito Antonio Accurso, the Di Lauro clan has several links to the Sacra Corona Unita in question with regards to drug trafficking.

The vast network of drug traffickers, extended from Morocco , passing through Spain , Switzerland and the Netherlands to finally arrive in Trentino and in Bolzano.

Arriving in Italy, the drugs were sold in parks, historic centers and near schools by mainly Tunisian and Moroccan pushers. Nineteen people were arrested, four are still being wanted in Italy, Spain and in the Netherlands and seventy-three are under investigation.

The links between the South American drug cartels and Camorra clans dates back to at least the s, having stabilized numerous privileged drug channels from South America to Europe over the years.

According to investigations, the Camorra member Tommaso Iacomino allegedly negotiated with the head of Peruvian and Colombian drug cartels over the cocaine trade.

Giuseppe Gallo called 'o pazz the crazy one , boss of the Limelli-Vangone clan, is said to having contacts with Colombian drug traffickers able to reach agreements for the purchase of large quantities of cocaine, supplying various clans in the Naples area.

According to the reports, the drug was found in 19 bags inside a container that arrived from Colombia. The container was headed to Naples but was intercepted at the port of Genoa.

On 18 December , the Italian police arrested 12 people, including members of an international drug cartel dedicated to the drug trafficking between Colombia and Italy.

According to the investigations, the cocaine brought from Colombia was pure and of high quality, and when it arrived in Italy, it was sold at a "retail" price of euros per gram, all the scheme was managed by Camorra members.

According to the Direzione Investigativa Antimafia, the Albanian mafia has alliances with the Mazzarella clan and with the Scissionisti di Secondigliano, both from Naples and with the Serino clan, from Salerno.

Saviano spoke of the Albanian mafia as a "no longer foreign mafia" to Italy and stressed that the Albanians and Italians have a "brotherly" relationship with each other.

Saviano notes that the Camorra feels great affinity with the Albanian crime families because both organizations are based on family ties.

According to the expert on terrorist organizations and mafia-type organized crime Antonio De Bonis, there is a close relationship between the Triads and the Camorra, and the port of Naples is the most important landing point of the trades managed by the Chinese groups in cooperation with the Camorra.

Among the illegal activities in which the two criminal organizations work together are the human trafficking and illegal immigration aimed at the sexual and labor exploitation of the Chinese compatriots into Italy, the synthetics drug trafficking and the laundering of illicit money through the purchase of real estate.

In , investigators discovered a scheme between the Camorra and the Chinese gangs. They exported industrial waste from Italy to China that guaranteed million-dollar revenues for both organizations.

The industrial waste left Prato in Italy and arrived in Hong Kong. Among the Camorra clans involved in this alliance were the Casalesi clan , the Fabbrocino clan and the Ascione clan.

In the beginning, the Nigerians were not tolerated by the Camorra but in recent times both organizations are making alliances. The relations between the Camorra and Nigerian mafia concern mainly drug trafficking and prostitution.

In particular, Camorra members allowed the Nigeria gangs to organize the trafficking of women in the territory in exchange for a share on the earnings.

The Nigerian mafia produces synthetic drugs independently and sells them with the consent of the Camorra.

This alliance, however, can change from one moment to another, as the Nigerians have asked to be treated on par with other Italian mafias, for the fact that they are growing both as a military and as an economic force.

According to numerous articles, the Camorra would be in alliances with the Islamic State. The allegations reached the media after the Italian police seized 14 tonnes of amphetamines produced in Syria by the Islamic State, on July 1, Camorra clans would bring the drugs to Italy and take a huge cut for helping to distribute them.

Yet according to the investigations, the drugs production provides the terrorist group with vital revenue for its militant activities.

These bills would then be transported to the Russian Mafia for distribution in 29 post- Eastern Bloc countries and former Soviet republics.

In the s, the Ukrainian mafia cooperated with Camorra clans in the cigarette smuggling business. The Ukrainians would smuggle the cigarettes from Ukraine and Eastern Europe into Italy, where with the help of the Camorra it supplies the Neapolitan market.

In March , a massive international arms trafficking ring was dismantled by the authorities of Italy and Austria and coordinated by Eurojust.

According to the investigations, the alliance between the Camorra and the Austrians lasted for seven years, until the police dismantled the scheme.

I dont know any cases, which are so big and where so many weapons have been sold. The new owners are also not "juvenile guarantors" but several members of the Camorra, one of the most dangerous criminal organizations in Europe.

The weapons are believed to have come originally from Eastern Europe taken to Carinthia in Austria with the objective to arrive in Terzigno near Naples.

DEA documents sent to the Dutch police exposed what would be a super drug cartel headed by Raffaele Imperiale Camorra's drugs and arms dealer , Ridouan Taghi former Dutch most wanted criminal, now in jail , Daniel Kinahan Irish drug trafficker and Edin G.

Bosnian drug trafficker. The meetings took place in , however, it only reached the Dutch media in October The DEA regards this as one of the world's fifty largest drug cartels, with a virtually monopoly of the Peruvian cocaine and would control around a third of the cocaine trade in Europe.

Yet, according to the DEA documents, the destination for all the drugs shipments would be the Dutch ports. With most of the old Camorra clans decapitated, and their bosses either dead or arrested, the organization is experiencing a rise in youth criminal gangs trying to take their places.

This phenomenon is called Paranza , Camorra terminology for a criminal group led by youngsters or "small fish".

In , 19 year-old Emanuele Sibillo, considered one of the first young and leading bosses of this new generation, was shot dead by a rival baby gang.

We can clearly see the baby gangs are criminals, or people who want to have criminal careers. But there's a vacuum, because the traditional families have lost their leaders.

In the centre of Naples the bosses are either in prison or they've become state witnesses, so there's this kind of space for younger kids to appear.

They're 17 or 18 with criminal ambition, and they've got a sense of identity of what they want to do. According to Misso, the real power of the organization is now in the hands of the Licciardi clan , Mallardo clan , Moccia clan and Contini clan.

On 2 September , Ciro Mazzarella , one of the last historical godfathers of the Camorra, and head of the Mazzarella clan , died in his villa in the affluent neighbourhood of Posillipo , Naples at the age of

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